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Learn the Arabic alphabet:

Intro to hamzaListen: hamza

hamza is a letter, but not generally considered part of the alphabet.

hamza is a "stop sound" produced by closing the vocal cords (the air stops for just a moment).

To hear how hamza sounds when appearing at the beginning of a word, listen to the pronunciation of the letter 'alif:

Listen: hamza

hamza in its written form, can appear on the same line as the other letters, or in combination with a support letter. A support letter is a letter that has a hamza above or beneath. See the examples below.

The rules of hamza are quite complex, and as you gain experience in reading Arabic, you will understand how it works.

Below are some examples of hamza, just to give you an idea about how it may appear.

'alif madda hamza on yaa' hamza on waaw hamza below 'alif hamza above 'alif
This hamza means it's combined with a long 'alif. It is called 'alif madda, and is pronounced 'aa.
hamza on yaa'.
hamza on waaw.
hamza below 'alif. This hamza is followed by the short vowel kasra.
hamza above 'alif. This hamza is followed by the short vowels fatHa or Damma.
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